History Of Slovenia
Slavic ancestors of Slovenians came from eastern parts of Europe and inhabited territory north of present Slovenian territory in the 6th century AD. They established a state called Caranthania (Karantanija in Slovene), which was an early example of parliamentary democracy in Europe. The ruler (knez in Slovene) was elected by popular vote. The Caranthanians were later defeated by Bavarians and Franks, who subjugated them. They were christianized, but they preserved many rituals of their pagan religion, and above all, they preserved their native language.
The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria under the Habsburg dynasty until 1918, when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new south-Slavic state ruled by Serbian Karađorđević dynasty call ed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians ("Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev" in Slovene), renamed Yugoslavia in 1929.
In WWII, Slovenia was invaded and occupied by Germans, Italians and Hungarians, leading to a parallel civil war between pro-communist liberation forces (Partizani) and axis-sponsored anti-communist reactionary factions ("Belogardisti" and Domobranci). The victory of the Allies and consequently the Partizans resulted in a violent mass exodus of those who had fought with the occupying forces, including most of the native German and Italian minorities.
After World War II, Slovenia became a republic in the reestablished Yugoslavia, which although Communist, distanced itself from the Soviet bloc and small territorial gains were made from Italy.
Dissatisfied with the exercise of power in Belgrade, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 with minimal bloodshed. In 2004, Slovenia joined the European Union and NATO. Most recently, Slovenia adopted the euro in 2007, completing a quick and efficient accession to Europe and the EU. Independence 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)Independence and Unity Day, 26 December (1990)
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991 Historical ties to Central Europe, a strong economy, and relatively stable democracy make Slovenia one of leading country among the new members of the EU and NATO.
Important historical milestones
- Slovenian ancestors first settled in this area in the 6th century;
- 7th century: duchy of Carantania, the first Slovenian state;
- 9th century: Freising Documents, the oldest records in the Slovenian language;
- 14th century to 1918: Slovenian regions become a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy;
- middle 15th century: a short period of the principality of Celje, which was the last political formation with its centre in the Slovenian territory;
- The Reformation period sets the foundation for the Slovene literary language. In 1550, the first Slovenian book is printed (by Primož Trubar). In 1584, the Bible is translated into Slovenian (by Jurij Dalmatin).
- 1809–13: the Illyrian Provinces (half of Slovenia was part of the French Empire), Slovenian national consciousness strengthens;
- 1848: demand for unification of all Slovenians into one kingdom within the Austrian Empire – United Slovenia Programme;
- 1918: end of World War One. After unsuccessful efforts to divide the Habsburg Monarchy into Austria, Hungary and the South Slavic area and the downfall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Slovenian ethnical territory breaks into 4 countries. In the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), the Slovenian territory is first divided into two administrative units (under the authority of Ljubljana and Maribor) and then united into the Drava Banovina (Drava Province);
- 1919: the union of Prekmurje with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians;
- 29 November 1945: Slovenians get their own Republic within the framework of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia;
- 15 September 1947: reunification of the greater part of Primorska with Slovenia on the basis of the Paris Peace Treaty;
- April 1990: first democratic elections;
- December 1990: plebiscite for a sovereign and independent country (88.5% of registered voters voted in favour);
- 25 June 1991: Slovenia declares independence;
- 23 December 1991: adoption of the new Slovenian Constitution;
- 15 January 1992: the European Union officially recognises Slovenia;
- 22 May 1992: Slovenia becomes a permanent member of the UN;
- 1 February 1999: the association agreement with the EU comes into force;
- 29 March 2004: Slovenia becomes a member of NATO;
- 1 May 2004: Slovenia becomes a member of the EU;
- 1 January 2007: Slovenia introduces the euro;
- 1 January – 30 June 2088: Slovenia holds the rotating presidency of the EU.